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  India is one of the most populated countries in the world, second after China. With a workforce of more than 440 million, a huge pool of English-speaking graduates and a fast-growing economy, the need for employment opportunities has increased drastically.
The Government is doing its best to bring about a better matching between the demand and the supply of work opportunities.
The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) and the Staff Selection Commission (SSC) conduct competitive exams for recruitment to various services and posts.
The Government has also set up a number of Employment Exchanges all over the country to facilitate recruitment of suitable candidates into its various sectors.
 Income Tax
  Income tax is a tax paid to the central government on personal income.
According to Income Tax Act 1961, every person who is an assessee and whose total income exceeds the maximum exemption limit shall be chargeable to the income tax at the rate prescribed in the Finance Act.
To file your Income Tax returns, you need to submit Saral Form, depending upon the type of tax you are filing.

There are different Saral forms i.e., Saral (Form 2D) and Naya Saral (2E) to file your income returns, depending on your profession/business/property.

This section provides you with useful facts on all forms of direct and indirect taxation applicable in the Country.
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 Driving License
  A Driving Licence is an official document certifying that the holder is suitably qualified to drive a motor vehicle or vehicles.

Under the provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 in India, no person can drive a motor vehicle in any public place unless he holds a valid Driving Licence issued to him, authorising him to drive a vehicle of that particular category.

In India, two kinds of Driving Licences are issued: Learner’s Licence and Permanent Licence. Learner’s Licence is valid only for six months.

Permanent Licence can be availed only after the expiry of one month from the date of issuance of the Learner’s Licence.
 PAN Cards
  Permanent Account Number (PAN) refers to a ten-digit alphanumeric number, issued in the form of a laminated card, by the Income Tax Department in India.
It is a must to have a PAN number for all those who file their income tax returns, because from 2005 onwards, it has been made mandatory by the Income Tax Department to quote the PAN on return of income as well as on all correspondence with any income tax authority in the country.
Also, it is now compulsory to quote PAN in all documents pertaining to financial transactions.
It is also mandatory to mention PAN for obtaining a telephone or cellular telephone connection. Likewise, PAN has to be mentioned for making a time deposit exceeding Rs. 50,000/- with a Bank or Post Office or for depositing cash of Rs. 50,000/- or more in a Bank.
 Passport / Visa
  The Consular Passport and Visa (CPV) Division of the Ministry of External Affairs is responsible for issuance of Indian Passport to the Indian Citizens.
This document is issued from 28 locations across the country and 160 Indian missions abroad.
The passport can be applied in the passport office, having your present address area in its jurisdiction.

To apply for a passport, you have to obtain an application form from the Passport Office or the designated Speed Post Centers or any of the designated outlets in your city.
Along with the duly filled application form, you have to submit proof of residence, date of birth, change of name, documents for ECNR, expired passport (if any), passport size photographs etc.
 Ration Cards
  A Ration Card is a document issued under an order or authority of the State Government, as per the Public Distribution System, for the purchase of essential commodities from fair price shops.
State Governments issue distinctive Ration Cards to Above Poverty Line, Below Poverty Line and Antyodaya families and conduct periodical review and checking of Ration Cards.
A Ration Card is a very useful document for Indian citizens. It helps save money by aiding in the procurement of essential commodities at a subsidised rate.
It has also become an important tool of identification now-a-days.

Families living below the poverty line are entitled to Blue Cards, under which they can avail special subsidies.
In addition to permanent Ration Cards, States also issue temporary Ration Cards, which are valid for a specified number of months, and are issued for relief purposes.
 TAN Cards
  Tax Deduction Account Number (TAN) is a unique 10 digit alphanumeric code allotted by the Income Tax Department to all those persons who are required to deduct tax at the source of income.

It is mandatory to quote TAN on all TDS (Tax Deduction at Source) returns (including e-TDS return) or any TDS payment challan.

In order to apply for a TAN or to get a change/ correction carried out in an existing TAN record, you are required to submit the requisite application form, which is available at any of the Tax Information Network Facilitation Centres (TIN-FCs) managed by the National Securities Depository Ltd (NSDL).

Applicants can submit a duly filled-in application to any of the TIN-FCs. The processing fee for both the applications (new TAN and change request) is Rs.55/- each (inclusive of service tax @ 10.20%).
 Birth Certificate
  A Birth Certificate is the most important identity document that makes it possible for anyone in possession of it to benefit from a gamut of services offered by the Indian Government to its citizens.
It becomes necessary to obtain a Birth Certificate because it serves to establish the date and fact of one’s birth for a whole range of purposes, like acquiring the right to vote, admission to schools and to the Government Service, claiming the right to marry at the legally permissible age, settlement of inheritance and property rights, and obtaining Government-issued identity documents like a driving licence or passport.

To apply for a Birth Certificate, you must first register the birth. The birth has to be registered with the concerned local authorities within 21 days of its occurrence, by filling up the form prescribed by the Registrar. Birth Certificate is then issued after verification with the actual records of the concerned hospital.
 Marriage Certificate
  A Marriage Certificate is the proof of registration of a marriage. The need for a Marriage Certificate arises in case you need to prove that you are legally married to someone, for purposes like obtaining a passport, changing your maiden name, etc.
In India, a marriage can be registered under either of the two Marriage Acts: the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 or the Special Marriage Act, 1954.
To be eligible for marriage, the minimum age limit is 21 for males and 18 for females.
The parties to a hindu marriage should be unmarried or divorced, or if previously married, the spouse by that marriage should not be alive. In addition, the parties should be physically and mentally healthy and must not be related in a way prohibited by the law.
 NRI / PIO / Dual Citizenship
  Based on the recommendation of the High Level committee on Indian Diaspora, the Government of India decided to grant Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) commonly known as ‘Dual Citizenship’.

Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs) of certain category as has been specified in the Brochure who migrated from India and acquired citizenship of a foreign country other than Pakistan and Bangladesh, are eligible for grant of OCI as long as their home countries allow dual citizenship in some form or the other under their local laws.
A person registered as OCI is eligible to apply for grant of Indian citizenship under section 5(1)(g) of the Citizenship Act, 1955 if he/she is registered as OCI for five years and has been residing in India for one year out of the five years before making the application.
  India is part of a global trend that is advancing towards an increasing urbanisation, according to which more than half of the world's population is living in towns and cities.
India has a total population of 1,027 million as accounted by the 2001 census, out of which 27.8 percent live in urban areas.
The span of ten years between 1991 and 2001 has showed a steady increase of 2.1 percent in the proportion of urban population in the country.
After 1950, the Government of India formulated ten five year plans aimed towards housing and urban development, which led to the launch of Urban Poverty and Alleviation Programme of Nehru Rojgar Yojana (NRY).
These plans laid emphasis on institution building and on construction of houses for government employees and weaker sections.

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